Youm e Shahadat Hazrat Ali R.A


Hadrat Ali (R.A.), forth Khalif of Islam, son in law & 1st cousin of Holy prophet (P.B.U.H) was born about thirty years after the birth of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu ‘alaiha wa Salam). He belonged to the most respectable family of Quraish, the Banu Hashim (i.e. Hashmites). His father  Abu Talib was the real uncle of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi we Salaam) who brought him up after the death of the Holy Prophet's grandfather. Ali’s mother was Fatimah bint Asad, who belonged to Banu Hashim. Hadrat Ali’s patronymic name was "Abul Hasan". The Holy Prophet gave him another name, "Abu Turab" which was most liked by Hadrat Ali. The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Salam) took Ali in his childhood from his father, Abu Talib, and brought up him like his own son. (Masha Allah). This article goes to him and his contribution to Islam and Muslims. Yesterday was the Youm-e-Shahadat of Hadrat Ali (R.A). It is humbly requested to all to please recite Surah Fatiha for him once.
Jazak Allah

About Hadrat Ali (R.A)

When the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi we Salaam) started revelations Hadrat Ali (R.A.) was about ten years old. The Holy Prophet disclosed his mission before Ali and he accepted it immediately, thus he became the first youth to enter the folds of Islam. When the Holy Prophet started to preach openly, he invited all of his family members to a feast and announced his mission before them. Nobody listened to him, but young Ali stood up and said. "Though my eyes are sore, my legs are thin and I am the youngest of all those present here yet I will stand by you,O Messenger of Allah." Hearing this all the leaders of Quraish laughed but Ali proved his words to be true after supporting the Holy Prophet in his mission from the beginning till the end.
 The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi we Salaam) loved him very much. The night when the Holy Prophet was migrating to Medina, his house was surrounded by the bloodthirsty tribesmen, who had plotted to assassinate him. They were ready to kill any person who came out of the house. In such a situation, the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi we Sallam) asked Hadrat Ali (R.A.) to sleep in his bed. He followed the command gladly and immediately jumped in the bed.

Although the Meccans did not accept his mission, they considered the Holy Prophet the most trustworthy man of Mecca and continued keeping their trusts (cash and gold etc.) with him. It was Ali (R.A.) to whom the Holy Prophet gave the deposits to return to the owners, when he was leaving Mecca for Medina.  Ali (R.A.) migrated to Medina after returning the deposits.
Hadrat  Ali (R.A.) was very close to the Holy Prophet, and the closeness was changed to a permanent relationship when he married his most beloved daughter, Fatimah (R.A.) to Ali (R.A.). Hadrat Ali (R.A.) also had the distinguished honour that the progeny of the Holy Prophet continued through Hadrat Ali’s sons from Fatimah (R.A.) namely Hadrat Hasan and Husain (R.A.). The two children were the most beloved of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam). When the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) went to the expedition of Tabuk in 9 A.H.  he left Hadrat Ali in charge of Medina. On this some hypocrites remarked that the Holy Prophet did not like Hadrat Ali. On this the Holy Prophet remarked, "You are in the same position in relation to me as Aaron was with relation to Moses. But the only difference is: there is no prophet after me."
Hadrat Ali (R.A.) was a very brave man. He participated in almost all the battles against the non-believers during the time of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi we Salaam). The stories of his bravery are famous in history. In the first battle of Islam at Badr, he was holding the flag of Islamic army. When three famous warriors of Quraish challenged the Muslims, according to Arab tradition, Hadrat Ali (R. A. ) along with Hadrat Hamzah and Abu Ubaidah (R.A.) accepted the challenge. He killed his opponent, Walid only with one thrust of his sword and cut him in two pieces. Then he helped Hadrat Abu Ubaidah (R.A.) to kill the next Quraishi warrior. In the battle of Uhud when Hadrat Mus'ab bin ‘Umair, the bearer of the Islamic standard, was martyred, it was Hadrat Ali (R.A.) who held it up. Seeing this one of the non-believers, Abu Sa'd challenged him. Hadrat Ali attacked him and he fell down on the ground naked. Ali (R.A.) felt pity on him and left him in that condition. In the battle of the Trench, all-Arabia fame warrior, 'Abdwood challenged the Muslims after jumping on his horse across the trench. Nobody dared to accept his challenge except  Ali. The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi we Salaam) warned  Ali about 'Abdwood but Ali insisted on going and fighting with him. Then the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) gave him his famous sword "Dhulfiqar" and put a turban on his head before he went to fight with 'Abdwood. A few minutes later people saw  'Abdwood’s head was cut off from his body by Ali.
Because of his bravely Hadrat Ali was popularly called "Asadullah"(The Lion of Allah).In the battle of Khaibar against Jews, the Muslims tried to conquer the strongest Jewish fort, Qumus, but were not successful in the beginning. Then the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi we Salaam) said, "I will give the command and the standard tomorrow to such a brave person who loves Allah and His Prophet and whom Allah and His Prophet love. Everybody was desiring to be that fortunate man. The people were rather surprised when the next morning the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu ‘alaihi we Salaam) called Ali who was sick and his eyes were sore. The Holy Prophet applied his finger, wet with his saliva, over the eyes of Ali (R.A.) and they were cured immediately. Then he gave the standard, and advised him. "First of all call them towards Islam. Even if one man is guided towards Islam because of you, it would be better than red camels." Following the advice of the Holy Prophet Hadrat Ali invited the Jews towards Islam. Instead of accepting the Right Path they sent their commander Marhab, the great warrior of Arabia and one of the bravest men of his time. He challenged Hadrat Ali to fight. Ali (R.A.) accepted the challenge and slew him in one attack. His famous sword cut Marhab's body into two pieces.He showed great bravery in each and every battle he fought and earned fame. He was counted as one of the great warriors of Arabia.

Ali (R.A.) was not only a great warrior but a great scholar as well. The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi we Salaam) said about him, "I am the city of knowledge and Ali is its gate." He was one of the great jurists among the Companions. The Holy Prophet appointed him as the Qadi (Judge) of Yemen during his life time. He was a master of Arabic and his writings were as effective as his speech. More about his scholarly services to Islam would be mentioned at the end.
In 9 A.H., the first Hajj of Islam took place. Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) was appointed as the leader of the Hajj group. After he left Medina revelation came to the Holy Prophet (Chapter IX. few verses in the beginning of the chapter) according to which the treaty with the non-believers had to be dissolved and they were given four month's notice. The announcement was to be made on the great day of Hajj. The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi we Salaam) asked Hadrat Ali to carry the message of Allah on his behalf. He gave Hadrat Ali (R.A.) his own she-camel, Qaswa on which Hadrat Ali rode and went to Mecca to read out the message before the crowd on the occasion of Hajj.
 There are so many virtues and services of Ali (R.A.) that it is difficult to mention them all in this short book. On many occasions the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) had prayed for him. When he sent Ali to Yemen in Ramadan 10 A.H. he blessed Ali (R.A.) with the following prayer: "O Allah put truth on his tongue, and enlighten his heart with the light of guidance." Then he himself put turban on his head and gave the black standard. On one occasion the Holy Prophet said to Ali, "You pertain to me and I pertain to you, " He also said, "When I am patron of anyone,  Ali is his patron also." Once the Holy Prophet said, "Only a hypocrite does not love Ali and a believer does not hate him." According to a Hadith transmitted by Imam Ahmad the Holy Prophet said to Ali, "You have a resemblance to Jesus whom the Jews hated so much that they slandered his mother and whom Christians loved so much that they placed him in a position not rightly his. Ali afterwards said, "Two (types of) people will perish on my account, one who loves me so excessively that he praises me for what I do not possess, and one who hates me so much that he will be impelled by his hatred to slander me."
The death of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi we Salaam) was a great shock to Hadrat Ali (R.A.). He had attended him day and night during his illness, and after his death he gave bath to the Holy Corpse and enshrouded it.
Hadrat Ali (R.A.) had taken pledge of loyalty on the hands of all the three past Khalifahs. However he was late in taking pledge at the hand of Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.). The reason why he was late in taking pledge on the hands of Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) was the serious illness of his beloved wife, Hadrat Fatima (R.A.) and that he was busy in collection of the Holy Qur'an. It is mentioned in the famous history book, Tabaqat ibn Sa'd: When Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) enquired of  Ali (R.A.) why he was so late in taking pledge of loyalty and whether he disliked his "Khilafat",  Ali (R.A.) replied, "I do not dislike your leadership but the fact is that I had taken an oath after the death of the Holy Prophet not to put on my sheet (i.e. not to engage in any work) except for performing Salat until I have collected all the parts of the Holy Qur'an." The Hadrat  Ali (R.A.) took pledge of loyalty on the hand of Abu Bakr and helped him throughout his Khilafat. He was very active during the time of Hadrat Umar and also married his daughter, Umm-i-Kulthum to him. In the matter of Hadrat Uthman's election he voted in his favour as has been mentioned before. Hadrat Ali (R.A.) was one of the very important members of "Shura" (Advisory Council) during the time of the first three Khalifahs. He was also the great jurist (Mufti) of Medina during the time of past Khalifahs. He was among the panel of six persons who had to select the Khalifah amongst themselves after Hadrat Umar (R.A.). Hadrat Uthman had great regard for him and consulted him in all the matters. His sons were the main guards at Uthman’s residence when the rebels laid siege to his house. Thus we conclude that Hadrat Ali (R.A.) gave his fullest possible support to all of his predecessors.
The insurgents' shameful act of assassination of the Khalifah could never have been imagined by Hadrat  Ali or any other eminent Companion at Medina. It came as a total surprise to Hadrat Ali (R.A.) whose two sons, Hasan and Husain (R.A.) were guarding the gate of Uthman’s residence. The insurgents after climbing the back wall of the residence had assassinated the Khalifah. The assassination of Hadrat Uthman was really due to creation of faction among the Muslim Community which was the goal of  ‘Abdullah Bin Saba and his followers (the insurgents), and they achieved it. After the assassination of Hadrat Uthman, the insurgents virtually controlled the Capital, Medina for several days. The Muslims were frightened and sat behind closed doors. After the assassination of Hadrat Uthman (R.A.) an unprecedented calamity had fallen on the Muslims and for three days, Medina was without any government. Afterwards the insurgents approached Hadrat Ali (R.A.) to be the Khalifah. Egyptians led by Ibn Saba and Ghafqi were the main group of insurgents behind the proposal for the Khilafat of Hadrat Ali (R.A.)  Hadrat Ali first declined to bear the responsibility of this great office. But the insurgents pressed him to accept it. As a matter of fact Hadrat Ali wanted to approach Hadrat Talha and Hadrat Zubair (R.A.) who were included in the panel of the six persons appointed by Hadrat Umar (R.A.) to select a Khalifah. He wanted to take pledge of loyalty (Bai'at) at the hands of any of these two gentlemen. But at the end, pressed by the threats of the regicides he decided to put the matter before Muslim public in the Mosque of the Holy Prophet(Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam). Most of the Companions in Medina considered him, to be the fittest person for "Khilafat" after Hadrat Uthman (R.A.). He then agreed to take the responsibility and gave his consent. On 21st Dhul-Hijjah 35 A.H. pledge of loyalty took place at the hands of Hadrat Ali (R.A). First of all the leading insurgents took the pledge of loyalty on his hands, followed by the general public, at Medina. Hadrat Talha and Zubair (R.A.) did not want to take a pledge (Bai'at) until the case of Hadrat Uthman assassination was decided. Before that Hadrat Ali had offered the office of Khilafat to both of them but they had declined. However under the threats of insurgents they took the pledge of loyalty at Hadrat Ali’s hands, on the condition: "You (i.e.’ Ali) have to decide matters according to the Holy Qur'an and Sunnah (ways of the Holy Prophet) and would punish the guilty according to Islamic Law." Hadrat Ali (R.A.) agreed to their conditions. Hadrat Sa'd bin Waqqas said that he would take pledge when all the Muslims had done so. Following Companions did not take pledge at the hands of Hadrat Ali (R.A.): Muhammad bin Muslimah, Usamah bin Zaid, Hassan bin Thabit. Ka'b bin Malik, Abu Sa'id Khudri, Nu'man bin Bashir, Zaid bin Thabit, Mughirah bin Shu'bah and 'Abdullah bin Salam. Most of the members of Banu Umayyah (Uthman's family) also did not take pledge of loyalty at Hadrat Ali’s hands. Some of such persons who did not take Bai'at went to Syria. However the majority of the Muslims in Medina took pledge at the hands of Hadrat Ali. According to "Ahli Sunnah wal Jama'ah", Hadrat Ali was the most suitable and the fittest person for Khilafat after Hadrat Uthman (R.A.). If some of the Companions did not take pledge on his hands, because of the political situation of that time, it did not mean that his Khilafat was not accepted by the Muslim majority. Besides Hadrat Ali (R.A.)  nobody including Hadrat Mu'awiyah (R.A.) claimed to be the Khalifah at that time. The difference between them was the question of punishment to the assassins, which took the shape of various battles. As it would be seen afterwards Hadrat Amir Mu'awiyah (R.A.) declared his Khilafat only after the death of Hadrat Ali (R.A.). Hadrat Ali was declared to be the Khalifah not only by the insurgents but by the Muslim public as well including the leading Ansar (Helpers) and Muhajirin (Emigrants). This could also be noticed with the fact that in the first battle which took place between Hadrat Ali and Hadrat 'Aisha (and her group) about 800 of those Companions who had participated in the Treaty of Hudaibiyah were with Hadrat Ali besides other Companions. As a matter of fact Hadrat Ali was the most popular figure at that time and was the most appropriate person to be the fourth caliph. He fulfill his responsibilities in a very dignified way but due to some misunderstandings in between Muslims he had to suffer alot that results in division of Muslims in groups.

The "Khwarij" were much against Hadrat Ali (R.A.) They were working against the Khilafat and they were greatly disgusted with the civil war that seemed endless. To end this state of affairs, they worked out a dangerous plot. According to them Muslims were divided because of differences between Hadrat Ali and Amir Mu'awiyah. They decided, therefore, to assassinate them. It was planned that the these personalities would be struck at the same time on the same day. Three persons, appointed to assassinate Ali, Mu'awiyah, and 'Amr ibn 'As (R.A.) were Abdur Rehman Muljam, Bark ibn 'Abdullah, and 'Amr ibn Bark respectively. Early hours of the 17th of Ramadan, 40 A.H., was fixed for the assassination. After the Fajr Salat of the 17th Ramadan in :he year 40 A.H. (661 A.D.) the three appointed Kharljis struck the three men. Amir Mu'awiyah escaped with a scratch, Hadrat Amr ibn 'As did not turn out for the Imamat because he was sick that day, thus was unhurt, but Hadrat Ali (R.A.) was mortally wounded with the poisoned sword of Ibn Muljam. He passed away in the evening of Ramadan 20, 40 A.H. Ibn Muljam was caught by the people after he had struck Hadrat Ali. Hadrat Ali asked the Muslims to slay him if he died. At the same time of his death Hadrat Ali called his sons and advised them to serve Islam and to be good with the Muslims. When somebody asked him should the Muslims take pledge of loyalty at the hands of his elder son, Hadrat Hassan, he replied, "I leave this decision to the Muslims." He also advised people not to kill any person other than the assassin to avenge him. He was sixty three years old at the time of his death and had ruled for four years and nine months as the Khalifah. According to a number of historians his real grave is not known because his son Hadrat Hasan took out his body from the grave after he was buried because of the fear of Kharijis and buried him at an unknown place.

The genealogical chain of "Sufis" (Islamic Mystics) ends at Hadrat Ali (R.A.) and through him it is linked to the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi was Salaam) in most of the orders. Thus Hadrat Ali (R.A.) has been considered as the great Imam of Tasawwuf (Spiritual Science or Mysticism). As it has been mentioned in the Urdu book of the author, "Tasalsulat-i-Imdadiah", Hadrat Shah Wali-'ullah of Delhi holds the view that the genealogical chain of the great "Sufis " is linked to the Holy Prophet through all the first four Caliphs among whom Hadrat Ali (R.A.) stands like a gateway between the "Sufis" on the one hand and the first three caliphs and the Holy Prophet on the other hand. Spiritual secrets were transferred by the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi we Salaam) to Hadrat Abu Bakr. From Abu Bakr (R.A.) the secrets were transferred to Hadrat Umar; and from Umar (R.A.) to Hadrat Uthman; and from Uthman (R.A.) to Hadrat Ali and from Hadrat Ali to "Sufis" through Imam Hasan Basri (R.A.) as it is believed in most of the Schools of Thoughts of Tasawwuf. Historically there are not enough proofs that Hadrat Hasan Basri had only tutelage under Hadrat Ali. However it has been confirmed that Hasan Basri met Hadrat Ali at the age of 15. In the science of Tasawwuf training under the Shaikh ("Murshid" or "Pir" or Spiritual Guide) is not necessary and spiritual secrets can be transferred even in a single meeting from the "Shaikh to the "Murid"(the spiritual disciple). Therefore the great "Sufis" do not doubt the fact that Hadrat Ali (R.A.) transferred spiritual secrets to Hasan Basri (R.A.), from whom they were passed on to the succeeding generations.Therefore Hadrat Ali (R.A.) and Imam Hasan Basri are the most important links in the genealogical orders ("SHAJRAHS") of most of the Schools of Thought of Tasawwuf.

 FOLLOWING ARE SOME SAYINGS OF HADRAT ALI (R.A):

 
  • He who is greedy is disgraced; he who discloses his hardship will always be humiliated; he who has no control over his tongue will often have to face discomfort. 
  •  Avarice is disgrace; cowardice is a defect; poverty often disables an intelligent man from arguing his case; a poor man is a stranger in his own town; misfortune and helplessness are calamities; patience is a kind of bravery; to sever attachments with the wicked world is the greatest wealth; piety is the best weapon of defence. 
  •  Submission to Allah's Will is the best companion; wisdom is the noblest heritage; theoretical and practical knowledge are the best signs of distinction; deep thinking will present the clearest picture of every problem. 
  •  The mind of a wise man is the safest custody of secrets; cheerfulness is the key to friendship; patience and forbearance will conceal many defects
  •  Man is a wonderful creature; he sees through the layers of fat (eyes), hears through a bone (ears) and speaks through a lump of flesh (tongue). 
  •  When this world favors somebody, it lends him the attributes, and surpassing merits of others and when it turns its face away from him it snatches away even his own excellences and fame. 
  •  If you overpower your enemy, then pardon him by way of thankfulness to Allah, for being able to subdue him.
  •  Live amongst people in such a manner that if you die they weep over you and if you are alive they crave for your company. 
  •  When some blessings come to you, do not drive them away through thanklessness. 
  •  Unfortunate is he who cannot gain a few sincere friends during his life and more unfortunate is the one who has gained them and then lost them (through his deeds)
  •  He who is deserted by friends and relatives will often find help and sympathy from strangers. 
  •  Our affairs are attached to the destiny decreed by Allah, even our best plans may lead us to destruction. 
  •  Overlook and forgive the weaknesses of the generous people because if they fall down, Allah will help them. 
  •  Failures are often the results of timidity and fears; disappointments are the results of bashfulness; hours of leisure pass away like summer-clouds, therefore, do not waste opportunity of doing good. 
May Almighty Allah bless his soul in peace...
                                                              Ameen

Comments